US banks are beginning a nationwide test of contactless ATM machines. JP Morgan Chase, who have more ATMs in the US than any other bank, have launched technology in four test cities that will allow consumers to withdraw money using their smartphones. Of the bank's total 18,000 machines, the technology has been installed on 6,000 of them, and has been activated for use on several hundred ATMs in Miami and San Francisco. Similar technology is also said to be in the pipeline for both the Bank Of America, and Wells Fargo, who have both stated that they wish to introduce cardless withdrawals before the end of the year. Wells Fargo's head of ATM said of the new technology that it was about “having the choice”, and that if a card is left at home “chances are you still have your smartphone in your hand”.