A new estimate by Emarketer has suggested that mobile messaging app use is set to break a new milestone by 2019. Currently, messaging apps are used by just under 1.4 billion people, but this is expected to rise to 2.3 billion in just three years, reaching a quarter of the world's population. This increase would represent growth of around 16% each year. The highest level of growth will come from Indonesia, where this year alone it is expected to see a 21% increase in messaging app use compared to 2015. Cathy Boyle, principal analyst of mobile at eMarketer, said that “mobile messaging apps have taken off because they are a cheaper alternative” to texting. She also added that “the expansion of messaging apps into platforms that include chat bots” is increasing the ways in which users can be engaged by marketers.