Research from J'son & Partners Consulting has found that VK and WhatsApp are the most popular chat apps in Russia. VK, or VKontakte, came top of the study even though it was a lowly fifth in the 2015 survey. The survey also highlighted Skype's fall in popularity in the country, coming only fourth in the rankings despite being top just three years ago. It was suggested that Skype's decline was due to “low quality of communication, abundance of advertising” and a “complicated registration process”. Coming second place in Russia helped WhatsApp come top of the worldwide study, ahead of Facebook Messenger, although VK did not appear in the global top seven, despite its overwhelming popularity in Russia.